Kuwait's government has been locked in a political battle with parliament, paralysing political life in the Gulf Arab country for much of the past year.
Parliament has repeatedly grilled ministers over their conduct, which has resulted in several resignations.
The emir, who has the last say in politics, has repeatedly urged deputies and the government to work together but to little avail.
Sa'ad Al-anayzi, Al Jazeera's correspondent in Kuwait, said the the resignation came as a big surprise.
"The current cabinet has weathered several crises before, but it seems they have reached a point where they cannot continue," he said.
Senior ministers have been holding off calls to resign amid growing unrest among Kuwaitis who are fretting that the government has done little to solve economic and social problems.
The emir might find it suitable to call an election, Al-anayzi said.