The new cabinet has four women members.
Dahabi replaces Marouf al Bakheet, who resigned last week following parliamentary polls after two years at the head of the government.
Elections to the 110-seat assembly was marred by accusations of vote buying and fraud.
The cabinet is likely to continue Jordan's free market reforms and maintain traditional support for US Middle Eastern policies.
Dahabi's past successes will be relied upon by the king to gain backing for economic and social reforms among the conservative establishment, the mainstay of the king's power base, officials said.
The king holds the most power via Jordan's constitution, granting him the ability to appoint governments, approve legislation and dissolve parliament.