Filed by Talib Mutlaq Deewan and the estates of three men killed, Himoud Saed Atban, Usama Fadhil Abbass, and Oday Ismail Ibraheem, the petition claims Blackwater "created and fostered a culture of lawlessness amongst its employees, encouraging them to act in the company's financial interests at the expense of innocent human life", the centre said in a statement.
The petition says the contractor has been paid more than $1bn by the US government since 2001 and that the company violated the federal laws in the September shootout in which 17 Iraqis died.
"Blackwater has turned recklessness into profit at the expense of the lives of innocent civilians," Vincent Warren, the executive director of the centre, said.
He made the comments in a brief interview after the case was filed.
Anne Tyrrell, a Blackwater spokeswoman, said the company was aware of the petition.
"Because it is a matter currently under investigation by the FBI, we will refrain from commenting on the specifics of the case other than to say that the company will defend itself vigorously," she said on Thursday.
Meanwhile, the UN Assistance Mission to Iraq (Unami) has said it is considering charging private security guards hired to support US-led forces in Iraq with war crimes or crimes against humanity for killing civilians.
"International humanitarian rights law applies to them as well," Ivana Vuco, a human rights officer with the agency, said on Thursday.