"The parliament, government and the people are all the same - they are all in the same ship which, if it sinks, will make everyone sink," al-Mashhadani said.
The session was poorly attended, as many Iraqi MP's struggled to get to the meeting due to security measures in Baghdad and at the parliament itself.
Politicians held a minute's silence for those killed in the bombing and recited verses form the Quran.
Later in the session, parliamentarians placed a bouquet of red and white flowers on a seat that was formerly used by Mohammed Awad, a Sunni politician, who was killed in the attack.
The US and Iraq have begun an investigation into the blast.
Three cafeteria workers have been detained and the bodyguards of some parliamentarians are being questioned.
Al Jazeera was told that Iraqi security forces found two further devices outside the parliament building that were probably intended to be detonated as MPs were running away from the original blast.
The explosion on Thursday took place in a canteen on the same floor as the 275-member national assembly's main debating chamber.
"The chances of success [in Iraq] are essentially zero because the Iraqi people have no voice"
Non Sequitur, Cadiz, Spain
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