It said all the passengers and crew had been evacuated from the plane.
An airport official, speaking on customary condition of anonymity, said the Biman Bangladesh Airlines Flight 006 was taking off at 6:30 am (0230 GMT) on Monday when a "small incident" occurred that caused the takeoff to be aborted and the plane halted on the runway.
The official said terrorism was not a factor in the incident.
A Dubai government-owned radio station said the Middle East's busiest airport would be closed for as long as eight hours and asked travellers to phone their airlines for more information.
Incoming flights were being diverted to neighbouring airports.
A statement from airport officials said operations should resume at 2:00 pm (1000 GMT).