|Attacks have spread from the North Caucasus to major cities of the Russian heartland [EPA]
June 14, 1995: Chechen fighters seize hundreds of hostages in a hospital in the southern Russian town of Budennovsk. More than 100 people are killed during the rebel assault and a botched Russian commando raid.
January 9, 1996: Chechen fighters take hundreds hostage in a hospital at Kizlyar in Dagestan, then move them by bus to Pervomaiskoye on the Chechen border. Most fighters escape but many hostages are killed when Russian forces attempt a rescue.
September 4, 1999: Bombs destroy apartment blocks in Moscow, Buynaksk and Volgodonsk. More than 200 people are killed. Moscow blames Chechens who in turn blame Russian secret services.
October 23, 2002: At least 41 Chechen fighters take 800 people hostage at a theatre in Moscow, the Russian capital.
Police storm the building three days later. All the hostage-takers and 129 hostages are killed.
December 27, 2002: At least 60 people are killed after a suicide bomber drives a vehicle laden with explosives into government buildings in Grozny, the capital city of the Chechen Republic.
December 5, 2003: An explosion tears through a morning commuter train just outside Yessentuki station in Russia's southern fringe. At least 46 people are killed and 160 injured.
February 6, 2004: A bomb on the Moscow subway kills at least 40 commuters. Police say a suicide bomber is of Chechen origin carried out the attack.
June 22, 2004: Fighters seize an interior ministry building in Ingushetia, near Chechnya, and attack other points in lightning attacks. At least 92 people are killed including Abukar Kostoyev, the acting regional interior minister.
August 24, 2004: Two passenger airliners with attackers carrying explosive devices on board crash in western Russia, killing at least 90 people.
September 1, 2004: Armed men attack a school in Beslan, a town in the autonomous Caucasus republic of North Ossetia and hold more than 1,100 children, parents and teachers hostage for 52 hours.
In all, 331 of the hostages and 31 fighters are killed.
June 12, 2005: A bomb is remotely detonated along a railway line near Moscow. Several carriages of a train travelling from Chechnya are derailed. At least 42 people are injured.
July 19, 2005: A bomb targeting groups of fighters in Snamenskoye, northwest of Grozny, claims at least 14 lives and injures 34 others.
October 13, 2005: Russian fighters attack the southern city of Nalchik in the Kabardino-Balkar republic. At least 137 people are killed in the clashes that follow, including 92 fighters, 33 security forces and 12 civilians.
August 21, 2006: A shrapnel bomb explodes at a market in Moscow, killing 10 people and injuring 50 others.
August 17, 2009: A suicide bomber in a pick-up truck carrying 200kg of explosives blows himself up in the city of Nazran in the Russian republic of Ingushetia.
November 27, 2009: A bomb exploded under a high-speed train travelling between the Russian cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg causing derailment near the town of Bologoye, Tver Oblast.
At least 27 people were killed and 95 injured in the attack which Chechen fighters had claimed responsibility.
March 29, 2010: Explosions at two underground train stations in Moscow occur in morning rush hour, killing 39 people and injuring scores.
March 31, 2010: Deaths are reported in two blasts in the town of Kizlyar in North Caucasus' Dagestan region.
July 21, 2010: At least two people are killed and two others wounded in an attack at a hydroelectric power plant in Kabardino-Balkariya in Russia's North Caucasus region.
October 19, 2010: At least six people are killed and another 10 wounded after armed men launched an attack on the Chechen parliament.