Ten years ago Muslim fighters in Dagestan, a Russian republic in the volatile North Caucasus, declared war against the government saying they wanted to establish an Islamic state.
The republic has been the scene of fighting ever since, with people from across the region joining the rebellion.
Russia, which responded with a massive counter-insurgency operation, has been accused of heavy-handed tactics and using collective punishment to quash uprisings.
The local authorities, under increasing pressure from Moscow, have also been criticised for their methods, with many critics suggesting that they are inflaming the situation rather making the people safer.
Neave Barker reports from Dagestan.
Source: Al Jazeera