A chronology of key attacks and bombings in Turkey:

November 15, 2003 - Thirty people are killed and 146 wounded when car bombs shatter two synagogues in Istanbul. Authorities name two men from southeast Turkey as the suicide bombers, saying the attacks bear the hallmarks of the al-Qaeda network.

November 20, 2003 - Thirty-two people are killed and many wounded in two explosions in Istanbul. Part of the HSBC Bank headquarters is destroyed. The British consulate is damaged.

June 24, 2004 - Four people are killed and 15 wounded in an explosion in Istanbul, before George Bush, the US president, was due to arrive in the city.

July 2, 2005 - Six people are killed and 15 injured after a bomb planted by Kurdish fighters explodes on a train between the eastern towns of Elazig and Tatvan in Bingol province.

July 6, 2005 - A bomb rips through a minibus in the western holiday resort of Kusadasi, killing at least five people, including a British woman and an Irish woman.

February 13, 2006 - Six people are injured, one seriously, after a bomb explodes at the Kiler supermarket on the European side of Istanbul. The Kurdistan Liberation Hawks (TAK) claim responsibility for the blast and pledge more attacks.

Suicide bombers killed 24 people in Istanbul in 2003 [GALLO/GETTY]

June 25, 2006 - A blast tears through a tourist area about 100km  east of the southern resort of Antalya, killing four and injuring 28. The TAK claim responsibility.

August 27, 2006 - Ten Britons and six Turks are wounded when their minibus is blown up in the tourist town of Marmaris on the Mediterranean coast. Five others are hurt by two other bombs.

August 28, 2006 - Three people are killed and 87 injured in a blast in Antalya, southern Turkey. The TAK claim responsibility.

September 12, 2006 - A bomb blast kills 10 people, eight of them children, near a park in Diyarbakir, the largest city of Turkey's restive, mainly Kurdish southeast region.

May 22, 2007 - Six Turks are killed in a suicide bombing at the entrance to a mall in the historic Ulus district of Ankara. Ninety-one people are injured.

September 27, 2007 - Two Turkish gendarme officers are killed when a mine laid by Kurdish separatists exploded in Bitlis province in eastern Turkey.

January 3, 2008 - A bomb attack on a military service vehicle outside a school kills at least five students and injures 110 in Diyarbakir.

May 9, 2008 - Three people are killed and five wounded when a landmine detonated by Kurdish fighters destroyed their minibus in Batman province, southeast Turkey.

July 9, 2008 - Three police officers and three attackers are killed in a shooting outside the US consulate in Istanbul.

July 27, 2008 - At least 13 people die and 70 others are wounded when two bombs explode within minutes of each other in the Gungoren shopping district in Istanbul.

Source: Agencies