Vladimir Putin, Russia's president, has previously suggested that his country might recognise Abkhazia and three other "breakaway states" on former Soviet soil if Kosovo was granted independence.
Georgian leaders responded angry to the Russian parliament's move.
"The State Duma adopted an aggressive and hostile decision," Konstantine Gabashvili, the head of the foreign relations committee of the Georgian parliament, said on Georgian Public Television.
|"The State Duma adopted an aggressive and hostile decision" |
head of Georgia's foreign relations committee
Nicoloz Rurua, another member of the Georgian parliament, said: "Such statements by Russian parliament will only speed up Georgia's Nato membership as they demonstrate how real is the threat coming from Russia."
Moscow appears determined to prevent the former Soviet state from joining the Nato military alliance.
George Bush, the US president, has assured Mikhail Saakashvili, his Georgian counterpart this week that the US would press for Georgia to be granted a "membership action plan".
Russia's parliament is dominated by Putin supporters and it is unlikely that the motion would have been debated without the Kremlin's knowledge.
It comes as the president is preparing to attend a Nato-Russia summit in Bucharest next month at which Georgia's membership of the alliance will be one of the items discussed.
Parliamentarians said recognition should be speeded up if steps were taken towards Georgia joining Nato or if it used force to try to regain control over the territories.
The motion also urged the Kremlin to consider an increase in the presence of Russian troops, who are deployed in both provinces as peacekeepers.
Noting that most residents in both regions have been given Russian passports, the parliament called for "boosting efforts to ensure security for Russian citizens".