Some demonstrators carried placards, reading "Putin is very bad" and "Kasyanov is an honest man," referring to Mikhail Kasyanov, a former prime minister and presidential candidate, others shouted "Disgrace", "Russia without Putin" and "Out with the corrupted authorities".
One police source was reported as saying that the demonstrators were arrested for "attempting to close the road and interrupt the flow of traffic, as well as other violations."
The Other Russia movement said in a press release that police had detained 30 members of the National Bolshevik movement before the demonstration, including Eduard Limonov, the group's leader.
Galina Kolosova, a court secretary, confirmed that Limonov was facing a preliminary hearing at one of the city's district courts.
The demonstration comes ahead of a series of elections, including local elections on March 11, that will culminate with a presidential vote next March, at which Putin is due to stand down.
In December, elections will be held to the Duma, Russia's national parliament, while presidential elections are scheduled for March next year.
Putin is due to stand down under a constitutional rule barring anyone from holding the office for more than two terms in a row.
The opposition says that the Kremlin has skewed election legislation, limiting opposition and stifling criticism in the media.