Prodi's centre-left government will now remain in power, on the promise to engineer electoral reforms.
Prodi resigned last week after nine months in office over a foreign policy defeat in the senate after some left-leaning members in his nine-party coalition voted against him.
Giorgio Napolitano, Italy's president, asked Prodi to remain in office after Prodi rallied his allies behind him, paving the way for today’s confidence vote.
However, Prodi does not appear to command widespread public support. A poll published on Wednesday suggested only four in 10 Italians want the centre-left leader to stay on.
Most favour a non-partisan technical government or snap elections, according to a poll in Corriere della Sera daily.
Thirty-nine per cent said Prodi would last only a few months and 22 per cent gave him one to two years - but not a complete five-year term.