"It is a big lie that there were no policeman. We will lodge a protest with the ICC," said Butt.
The comments came as footage from security cameras was released by the television station Geo of several attackers calmly fleeing the scene of the crime down a deserted side street.
All of the armed men were shown escaping, none of whom have been apprehended.
Broad levelled his criticism of the security arrangements after arriving at UK's Manchester airport.
"I raised my concerns with the ICC before the tour started and they passed on those concerns to the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) and they assured me through email that all security would be taken care of, presidential-style security, and clearly that didn't happen," he said.
Broad was travelling in a van behind the Sri Lankan team towards Lahore's Gaddafi stadium when the two vehicles were ambushed.
The three foreign umpires in the second bus were unhurt, while Pakistani Ahsan Raza, a fourth match official, was shot in the chest.
Seven Sri Lankan players and their assistant coach were among 19 people injured.
"When you watch the TV pictures you can clearly see the white van we were in, in the middle of a roundabout and not a sign of a policeman anywhere," Broad said.
"They had clearly gone, left the scene and left us to be sitting ducks. I am extremely angry we were promised high-level security and in our hour of need that security vanished.
"I am extremely fortunate to be here today."
The surveillance video, broadcast on Pakistani television on Wednesday, showed the attackers walking along the middle of the side street and escaping on motorcycles.
The men are seen carrying their assault rifles and are unhindered by any police pursuit.
Broad was unclear as to why the Sri Lankan bus seemed isolated during the cricket series.
"On the first two days [of the Test], both buses left [the hotel] at the same time with escorts," he said.
"On this particular day the Pakistan bus left five minutes after the Sri Lankan bus. Why?
"There were times during the Karachi Test when the Sri Lankans went first and Pakistan went afterwards.
"After this happened you start to think: 'Did someone know something and they held the Pakistan bus back?'"
However, Broad said that he did not have any evidence of a conspiracy.
"There were plenty of police there and yet these terrorists came in, did what they had to do and then went again. It is beyond me," he said.
Responding to the criticism, Khusro Pervez, the Lahore police commissioner, admitted in an interview on Thursday that there had been "certain security lapses which are very vivid and very clear".
None of the 12 alleged attackers have
been caught by police [AFP]
He said that "back-up police support ... didn't arrive."
"All convoys are provided outer cordons, but in this case the outer cordon did not respond or it was not enough," Pervez said.
"The vehicles used for escorting the Sri Lankan convoy were not adequate."
But earlier Habibur Rehman, the Lahore police chief, praised his men for what he called their defence of the team.
"It was precisely because of police valour and bravery that the Sri Lankan team and the international umpires survived," he said.
The Pakistani authorities say they have questioned a number of suspects as they continue to hunt for the armed men.
Pakistani officials said earlier that more than 100 people had been detained as investigators hunted for the attackers.
A reward of $125,000 has been offered for help in finding those behind Tuesday's attack, for which no one has claimed responsibility.
Speculation has largely focused on homegrown groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, which India has blamed for last year's attack on Mumbai, Laskhar-Jhangvi and the so-called Pakistani Taliban.
However, some people in Pakistan have suggested the assailants may have crossed from India or co-operating with Sri Lanka's Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) rebels.