It is the first formal charges related to the attacks and they allow a trial to begin, although no date has been announced for this.
A document of several thousand pages outlining the charges included a confession from Kasab and the accounts of 150 witnesses, Rakesh Maria, Mumbai police's main investigator, said.
There is also CCTV footage of Kasab and another man walking into Mumbai's Chhatrapati Shivaji train station and firing successive rounds of bullets, Maria said.
Under Indian law police have 90 days to charge a suspect after a formal arrest.
A conviction for the two main charges could produce a death penalty sentence.
The attacks targeted numerous sites in the city on the western coast of India, including luxury hotels and a Jewish centre.
India has placed the blame for the attacks on Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islamist group, and said that all 10 attackers were Pakistani.
The attacks have raised tensions between the two countries.
Earlier this month Pakistani officials said that part of their plotting was on Pakistani soil and established criminal proceedings against 8 suspects.