"I think China will strongly embrace economical reform if promises made by its president go ahead"
Mohamed Hassan, Galkayo, Somalia
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No reasons were given for the ommission of the three leaders but all three were either over or near the party's preferred retirement age.
The committee list was approved on the final day of the ruling Communist Party's five-yearly congress.
In closing remarks, Hu said the party would commit to a "basic line of taking economic development as the central task," and to building a "moderately prosperous society in all respects".
"With the concerted efforts of all delegates, we have held high our banner and carried forward our cause in a truth-seeking and pragmatic manner," Hu said.
Zeng, 68, was a influential party leader long associated with Hu's predecessor, Jiang Zemin.
Luo Gan is a senior security official and Wu Guanzheng is an anti-corruption chief.
Wu Yi, a vice-prime minister and the only female member of the politburo, was also leaving as was Cao Gangchuan, China's defence minister.
Jia Qinglin, 67, a long-time ally of Jiang, will remain on the committee.
The new committee will appoint a politburo of a few dozen members and an elite politburo standing committee, with an announcement on the new line-ups expected on Monday.
The membership of the politiburo and standing committee will signify how much power Hu holds, as well as who his potential successors and rivals are.
"I think what we are seeing is the outcome of fight over who should be in charge," Dr Russell Leigh Moses, a political analyst in Beijing, told Al Jazeera.
"Hu Jintao is beginning to win this fight. He’s been able to put a lot of people who think the same way as he does… alongside of him.
"We're probably going to see individuals in their 50s or early 60s [in the new politburo]. I think we're going to see individuals coming in who reflect general views that Hu Jintao has."
Li Keqiang, party leader of the northeastern industrial province of Liaoning, is thought to be among the leading contenders for promotion.
The new inner core is also likely to include Xi Jinping, a party leader from Shanghai.