Tang said the resolution reflects the grave concerns of the "international community" and stressed the need for all sides to "show flexibility and create conditions for resuming the negotiations".
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the Iranian president, has dismissed the resolution as "trash paper" and said Tehran had humiliated the US in the past and would do so again.
The US has led the drive to stop Iran from enriching uranium, which can lead to the production of nuclear reactors and bombs.
China maintains close ties with oil-rich Iran but is also a permanent member of the UN Security Council.
The council voted unanimously to bar all countries from selling materials and technology to Iran that could contribute to its nuclear and missile programmes.
It also froze the assets of 10 Iranian companies and 12 individuals.
Iran has said it is not seeking to build atomic weapons, but to generate electricity, from its nuclear programme.
Larijani is to meet Hu Jintao, the Chinese president, on Friday.