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In Pictures: India's drug-resistant TB crisis
Mismanagement has led to drug resistance and untreatable strains, stoking fears of a worsening health crisis.
Last updated: 17 Feb 2014 12:32
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India accounted for the greatest increase in multi-drug resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) with an estimated 64,000 new cases in 2012.

MDR-TB can occur as a primary infection or develop during a patient’s treatment. But experts say drug-resistance is a man-made problem. “It is powerful sign of system failures,” says Madhukar Pai of McGill International TB Centre. Treatment is expensive with greater risks of side effects and lasts up to two years.

Pai says incorrect regimens, poor quality drugs, lack of treatment adherence, and inadequate testing of drug-susceptibility leads to drug resistance. There are reports of patients totally resistant to all existing drugs.

The drug-resistant strain of TB complicates India's battle against the disease. Two people die of TB every three minutes in India, which accounts for 26 percent of the cases globally.

The World Health Organisation estimates that four-fifths of drug resistance cases worldwide are still undetected. Government health officials told Al Jazeera increase in MDR-TB cases was because of better diagnostics.

TB is an opportunistic disease and HIV patients are more susceptible, says Akke Boere, India director of Medicins Sans Frontieres. “The HIV patients are already taking drugs and treatment for MDR-TB is long and includes very strong drugs.”


/Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

A multi drug resistant TB patient. She works as a day labourer to support her family of four.



/Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

A healthcare provider of Medicins Sans Frontieres shows a dose of medicines given to MDR-TB patients.



/Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

The government TB hospital in Manipur. This northeastern Indian state has the highest prevalence rate of HIV. TB is a major co-infection along with Hepatitis C.



/Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

A patient who is currently under treatment for MDR-TB is isolated from other family members to prevent infection, especially among children.



/Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

India provides free treatment for all primary TB patients. But half of the TB patients go to private sector, where antibiotics are misused often leading to drug resistance.



/Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

A former drug resistant TB patient who took regular doses of TB medicines. He suffered from recurring TB complications, took different treatment courses from doctors in the private sector. His cure was long and arduous.



/Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera
MDR medication is expensive, which causes many patients to abandon their drug regimen. This results in worse form of drug resistance.


/Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

Drug resistant patients do not respond to standard first-line drugs. A person may be directly infected by DR TB or can develop resistance due to lack of adherence.



/Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

India registered the greatest increase in multi-drug-resistance TB in 2012.



/Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

The WHO recommends that India speed up its capacity for diagnosis and treatment, especially MDR-TB.




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images:
/mritems/images/2014/2/10/201421010029588178_8.jpg;*;/mritems/images/2014/2/10/20142101003010112_8.jpg;*;/mritems/images/2014/2/10/201421010030182133_8.jpg;*;/mritems/images/2014/2/10/201421010030603499_8.jpg;*;/mritems/images/2014/2/10/201421010030994114_8.jpg;*;/mritems/images/2014/2/10/201421010031479950_8.jpg;*;/mritems/images/2014/2/10/201421010031932889_8.jpg;*;/mritems/images/2014/2/10/201421010032354105_8.jpg;*;/mritems/images/2014/2/10/201421010032729829_8.jpg;*;/mritems/images/2014/2/10/201421010033197782_8.jpg
captions:

A multi drug resistant TB patient. She works as a day labourer to support her family of four.

;*;

A healthcare provider of Medicins Sans Frontieres shows a dose of medicines given to MDR-TB patients.

;*;

The government TB hospital in Manipur. This northeastern Indian state has the highest prevalence rate of HIV. TB is a major co-infection along with Hepatitis C.

;*;

A patient who is currently under treatment for MDR-TB is isolated from other family members to prevent infection, especially among children.

;*;

India provides free treatment for all primary TB patients. But half of the TB patients go to private sector, where antibiotics are misused often leading to drug resistance.

;*;

A former drug resistant TB patient who took regular doses of TB medicines. He suffered from recurring TB complications, took different treatment courses from doctors in the private sector. His cure was long and arduous.

;*;MDR medication is expensive, which causes many patients to abandon their drug regimen. This results in worse form of drug resistance. ;*;

Drug resistant patients do not respond to standard first-line drugs. A person may be directly infected by DR TB or can develop resistance due to lack of adherence.

;*;

India registered the greatest increase in multi-drug-resistance TB in 2012.

;*;

The WHO recommends that India speed up its capacity for diagnosis and treatment, especially MDR-TB.

Daylife ID:
da3fe6e3395e7a6dcc4a06dc24f5c53f
Photographer:
;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;
Image Source:
Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera;*;Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera;*;Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera;*;Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera;*;Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera;*;Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera;*;Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera;*;Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera;*;Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera;*;Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera
Gallery Source:
Daylife
Daylife Raw Data:
Drug resistant TBhttp://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TBen-ussupport@newscred.comUntitled Site10Mon, 10 Feb 2014 09:56:28 GMT http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/a539c342b911980ba5cbe6114ab3f80c

A multi drug resistant TB patient. She is the breadwinner, who works as a day laborer to support her family of four.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/a539c342b911980ba5cbe6114ab3f80cBijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

A multi drug resistant TB patient. She is the breadwinner, who works as a day laborer to support her family of four.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/bc9e38ec8c7f6c9c4da7dba903987adf

A healthcare provider of Medicines Sans Frontier shows a dose of medicines given to MDR TB patient.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/bc9e38ec8c7f6c9c4da7dba903987adfBijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

A healthcare provider of Medicines Sans Frontier shows a dose of medicines given to MDR TB patient.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/7b90b933b704da68632c552415a0dbb8

State TB hospital, Manipur. This northeast Indian state has the highest prevalence rate of HIV. TB is a major co infection along with Hepatitis C.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/7b90b933b704da68632c552415a0dbb8Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

State TB hospital, Manipur. This northeast Indian state has the highest prevalence rate of HIV. TB is a major co infection along with Hepatitis C.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/7767040422be354f649cd31b22f7a338

A patient who is currently under treatment for MDR TB is isolated from other family members to prevent infection, especially among children.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/7767040422be354f649cd31b22f7a338Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

A patient who is currently under treatment for MDR TB is isolated from other family members to prevent infection, especially among children.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/a804ba96317e5d682131919d53357420

India provides free DOTS treatment for all primary TB. But half of the TB patients go to private sector, where antibiotics are misused often leading to drug resistance.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/a804ba96317e5d682131919d53357420Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

India provides free DOTS treatment for all primary TB. But half of the TB patients go to private sector, where antibiotics are misused often leading to drug resistance.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/32fd6d7ff173ab51e90f7b8416265478

A pre extensively drug resistant TB patient who took regular doses of TB medicines. He suffered from recurring TB complications, took different treatment courses from doctors in the private sector before he was diagnosed as DR.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/32fd6d7ff173ab51e90f7b8416265478Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

A pre extensively drug resistant TB patient who took regular doses of TB medicines. He suffered from recurring TB complications, took different treatment courses from doctors in the private sector before he was diagnosed as DR.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/ab73bfb2819297dd7af3e9b54346c5a8

MDR medication is expensive, which causes many patients to abandon their drug regimen. This results in worse form of drug resistance.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/ab73bfb2819297dd7af3e9b54346c5a8Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

MDR medication is expensive, which causes many patients to abandon their drug regimen. This results in worse form of drug resistance.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/2354ed5196ce7aefd295cbd80ad4c374

Drug resistant patients do not respond to standard first line drugs. A person maybe directly infected by DR TB or can develop resistance due to lack of adherence.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/2354ed5196ce7aefd295cbd80ad4c374Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

Drug resistant patients do not respond to standard first line drugs. A person maybe directly infected by DR TB or can develop resistance due to lack of adherence.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/52b6f4920d6ba008a88113a1cf4b4b54

According to WHO, India diagnosed only 16,588 drug resistant TB cases in 2012.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/52b6f4920d6ba008a88113a1cf4b4b54Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

According to WHO, India diagnosed only 16,588 drug resistant TB cases in 2012.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/e6f72cdfa8aa9f4930887581687e56f3

The WHO recommends that India include MDR TB treatment in the public healthcare program.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Drug_resistant_TB/slideshow/no-caption/e6f72cdfa8aa9f4930887581687e56f3Bijoyeta Das/Al Jazeera

The WHO recommends that India include MDR TB treatment in the public healthcare program.



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