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In Pictures: Manipur under the shadow of guns
Extra-judicial killings are in focus as small north-eastern state pays price for unresolved conflicts.
Last updated: 24 Jan 2014 08:46
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Indian-administered Kashmir is not the only region in the country caught up in a conflict, although it is the most reported.

Far away in the country's north-east, tucked away amidst hills, is the small state of Manipur that witnesses such turmoil almost on a daily basis.

Since becoming part of India, Manipur, one of the "seven sister" states in the north-east, has been wracked by protracted conflict over ethnic and cultural sovereignty.

Today there are at least 34 active armed and unarmed non-state actors operating within Manipur and across its eastern border with Myanmar, pursuing varied goals.

In an attempt to quell the unrest, India in 1958 implemented the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) in the north-eastern states. Under the act Indian security forces were granted sweeping powers.

Civil society groups have documented hundreds of cases of extra-judicial executions between 2007-2012.

The Indian Supreme Court at the beginning of 2013 formed and independent panel led by retired judge Santosh Hedge to investigate six sample cases of the 1,500 cases that were submitted to the court by the Extra-judicial Execution Victim Families Association (EEVFM) and Human Rights Alert (HRA). The panel found that all six cases were "not genuine encounters" and that "maximum force" was used in each case.

In 2012 the United Nations Special Rapporteur on extra-judicial executions, Christof Heyns, had asserted that "in the north-eastern states, and Jammu and Kashmir, the armed forces have wide powers to employ lethal force." He felt the elevated rate of extra-judicial executions are the result of a security apparatus that is empowered to act with high-levels of impunity.

The Indian government maintains innocence and argues that the procedure adopted by the panel in drawing up the list of extra-judicial killings was "faulty" and that the Supreme Court should consider it "null and void".

The court, however, is awaiting a detailed reply from the federal government and the next court hearing has been slated for February 7.

Meanwhile, Manipur continues to live under the shadow of the gun.


/Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/ Al Jazeera

Manipur is surrounded by mountains, with only two highways and no railway. The state is easily and frequently blocked by protesters - in 2011 there was a blockade that ran for 3 months.



/Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

The family of Ahanthem Amujao, 16, who was allegedly killed in an encounter on January 29, 2012. His killing prompted a visit by the Indian Human Rights Commission to  Manipur for the first time.



/Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Family members carry the body of David Sanasam, 25, to the funeral pyre, David was allegedly killed in an 'encounter" with security forces.



/Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Armed non-state actors pose for the media: some of them are blamed for intimidation, kidnapping and killings of government and election officials.



/Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Sonia Sanasam, 22, is comforted by family. Her husband David Sanasam, 25, was allegedly killed in a staged encounter.



/Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

The body of David Sanasam reportedly bore marks of torture.



/Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

With insecurity sweeping the state, life normally stops after sunset in Manipur. "One should know not to go out at night, what foolishness?," said one old Manipuri woman.



/Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Members of an activist group prepare to commemorate the death anniversary for Dr Kishan and two friends. Dr Kishan was a bureaucrat who was allegedly killed by an armned group for refusing to do their bidding.



/Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Members of the Mera Paibi (torch barriers), an all women group. Members of the group at times patrol their respective communities at night to guard against state and non-state actors.



/Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Children play with toy guns. Carrying a gun is percieved to be symbols of both power and respect in Manipur.



/Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Irom Sharmila is known across India as the "Iron Lady". She has been on hunger strike since 2000, demanding that the Armed Forces Special Powers Act be withdrawn. The authorities force feed her to keep her alive, but Sharmila remains steadfast in her demand.




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images:
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captions:

Manipur is surrounded by mountains, with only two highways and no railway. The state is easily and frequently blocked by protesters - in 2011 there was a blockade that ran for 3 months.

;*;

The family of Ahanthem Amujao, 16, who was allegedly killed in an encounter on January 29, 2012. His killing prompted a visit by the Indian Human Rights Commission to  Manipur for the first time.

;*;

Family members carry the body of David Sanasam, 25, to the funeral pyre, David was allegedly killed in an (***)encounter" with security forces.

;*;

Armed non-state actors pose for the media: some of them are blamed for intimidation, kidnapping and killings of government and election officials.

;*;

Sonia Sanasam, 22, is comforted by family. Her husband David Sanasam, 25, was allegedly killed in a staged encounter.

;*;

The body of David Sanasam reportedly bore marks of torture.

;*;

With insecurity sweeping the state, life normally stops after sunset in Manipur. "One should know not to go out at night, what foolishness?," said one old Manipuri woman.

;*;

Members of an activist group prepare to commemorate the death anniversary for Dr Kishan and two friends. Dr Kishan was a bureaucrat who was allegedly killed by an armned group for refusing to do their bidding.

;*;

Members of the Mera Paibi (torch barriers), an all women group. Members of the group at times patrol their respective communities at night to guard against state and non-state actors.

;*;

Children play with toy guns. Carrying a gun is percieved to be symbols of both power and respect in Manipur.

;*;

Irom Sharmila is known across India as the "Iron Lady". She has been on hunger strike since 2000, demanding that the Armed Forces Special Powers Act be withdrawn. The authorities force feed her to keep her alive, but Sharmila remains steadfast in her demand.

Daylife ID:
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Photographer:
;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;;*;
Image Source:
Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/ Al Jazeera;*;Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera;*;Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera;*;Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera;*;Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera;*;Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera;*;Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera;*;Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera;*;Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera;*;Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera;*;Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera;*;Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera
Gallery Source:
Daylife
Daylife Raw Data:
Extrajudicial killingshttp://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killingsen-ussupport@newscred.comUntitled Site10Wed, 15 Jan 2014 13:56:42 GMT http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/0f4e8ccb23d13d58fcf5f89fbd03c54c

Manipur is surrounded by mountains, with only two highways and no railway the state is easily and frequently blocked due to protests, during 2011 a 3 month blockade was successfully carried out.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/0f4e8ccb23d13d58fcf5f89fbd03c54cIan Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/ Al Jazeera

Manipur is surrounded by mountains, with only two highways and no railway the state is easily and frequently blocked due to protests, during 2011 a 3 month blockade was successfully carried out.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/0ddcab031868e53c2ce3f8631f389dff

The family of the late Ahanthem Amujao, 16, who was allegedly killed in an encounter on January 29th, 2012, his killing prompted the Indian Human Rights Commission visit Manipur for the first time.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/0ddcab031868e53c2ce3f8631f389dffIan Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

The family of the late Ahanthem Amujao, 16, who was allegedly killed in an encounter on January 29th, 2012, his killing prompted the Indian Human Rights Commission visit Manipur for the first time.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/b186675e6215627c23c788552aacfab0

Family members carry the body of David Sanasam, 25, to the funeral pyre, David was allegedly killed in an 'encounter' with Indian security forces.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/b186675e6215627c23c788552aacfab0Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Family members carry the body of David Sanasam, 25, to the funeral pyre, David was allegedly killed in an 'encounter' with Indian security forces.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/bd32e7a8e9682f950fa48fb649d20531

Armed non state actors pose for the media, some actors like these are responsible for intimidation, kidnapping and killings of government and election officials, May 2012.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/bd32e7a8e9682f950fa48fb649d20531Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Armed non state actors pose for the media, some actors like these are responsible for intimidation, kidnapping and killings of government and election officials, May 2012.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/3fde12ca74ed41552e785b8da83325f1

Sonia Sanasam, 22, is comforted by family while recalling the last time she saw her husband David Sanasam, 25, before he was killed in an 'encounter' to the H2H Transcultrual Centre for Trauma and Torture. David's body was found to have signs of torture, burns and broken limbs February 4, 2012.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/3fde12ca74ed41552e785b8da83325f1Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Sonia Sanasam, 22, is comforted by family while recalling the last time she saw her husband David Sanasam, 25, before he was killed in an 'encounter' to the H2H Transcultrual Centre for Trauma and Torture. David's body was found to have signs of torture, burns and broken limbs February 4, 2012.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/2060f0312b8b07592a6d187c6e48232aDavid Sanasam, 25, is inspected by his brother and friend in the Imphal morgue, his arms were bruised and twisted in unnatural directions, David dissapeared after he told member of his family that he was about to meet up with Imphal East Commandos and that they would drop him home later, February 9, 2012.http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/2060f0312b8b07592a6d187c6e48232aIan Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera David Sanasam, 25, is inspected by his brother and friend in the Imphal morgue, his arms were bruised and twisted in unnatural directions, David dissapeared after he told member of his family that he was about to meet up with Imphal East Commandos and that they would drop him home later, February 9, 2012. http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/0f9a565411d6c6ed45899d7ccf3df12b

Locals identify the location of a alleged ??killing field within Imphal the capital of Manipur and where David Sanasam's body was found.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/0f9a565411d6c6ed45899d7ccf3df12bIan Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Locals identify the location of a alleged ??killing field within Imphal the capital of Manipur and where David Sanasam's body was found.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/d20560d9d55994dc8654747df14234ba

Much of life stops between 6,8pm as the sun goes down, '??one should know not to go out at night, what foolishness??' remarked one old women .

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/d20560d9d55994dc8654747df14234baIan Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Much of life stops between 6,8pm as the sun goes down, '??one should know not to go out at night, what foolishness??' remarked one old women .

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/892fc451fa4336f9c8a7eb688cfb999eJoint Action Committee (JAC) members prepare for the 3rd death anniversary for Dr Kishan and two friends, Dr. Kishan was a bureaucrat, and he was killed by a Naga armed group after repeatedly refusing to be bribed, February 16, 2012.http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/892fc451fa4336f9c8a7eb688cfb999eIan Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera Joint Action Committee (JAC) members prepare for the 3rd death anniversary for Dr Kishan and two friends, Dr. Kishan was a bureaucrat, and he was killed by a Naga armed group after repeatedly refusing to be bribed, February 16, 2012.Summaryjustice jansenlonnquist-13http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/summaryjustice-jansenlonnquist-13/c7947ecebebebc1960ff8aa27b31c279Members of the Mera Paibi (torch barriers) an all women social activist organization organize reading material for an upcoming rally after their weekly meeting, at one point the group use to count its members in the hundreds and would patrol their respective communities at night to guard against stat and non-state actors, February 15, 2012.http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/summaryjustice-jansenlonnquist-13/c7947ecebebebc1960ff8aa27b31c279Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al JazeeraSummaryjustice jansenlonnquist-13Members of the Mera Paibi (torch barriers) an all women social activist organization organize reading material for an upcoming rally after their weekly meeting, at one point the group use to count its members in the hundreds and would patrol their respective communities at night to guard against stat and non-state actors, February 15, 2012. http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/25da201020ece4568b7a9f9dcce02130

Children play with toy guns they received for the holiday Yaoshang, children look up to armed members of their society, both state an non state actors alike, carrying a gun is precieved to grant you both power and respect in Manipur, March 8, 2012.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/25da201020ece4568b7a9f9dcce02130Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Children play with toy guns they received for the holiday Yaoshang, children look up to armed members of their society, both state an non state actors alike, carrying a gun is precieved to grant you both power and respect in Manipur, March 8, 2012.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/b085ec3eb53874f3ef9464be6fe78c03

Irom Sharmila Chanu, the 'Iron lady' of Manipur is produced every two weeks in court, held on charges of attempt to commit suicide release and rearrested annually. Sharmila has been on a hunger strike for the past 13 years against the Armed Forces special Powers Act 1958, and is held and force feed by the Indian Government February 22, 2012.

http://aljazeera.galleries.newscred.com/gallery/Extrajudicial_killings/slideshow/no-caption/b085ec3eb53874f3ef9464be6fe78c03Ian Thomas Jansen-Lonnquist/Al Jazeera

Irom Sharmila Chanu, the 'Iron lady' of Manipur is produced every two weeks in court, held on charges of attempt to commit suicide release and rearrested annually. Sharmila has been on a hunger strike for the past 13 years against the Armed Forces special Powers Act 1958, and is held and force feed by the Indian Government February 22, 2012.



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