Cairo, Egypt - Ahmed el-Said Salem, 19, said he witnessed his friend being killed by police at a downtown Cairo protest during the downfall of former president Hosni Mubarak.
Salem was later beaten and hospitalised by security forces in March, his family says, apparently to keep him from testifying about it.Yet under Egypt's new draft of the Witness Protection Act, the same police force accused of abusing him would be put in charge of his safety.
The draft law, discussed by Egypt's beleaguered Shura Council last week, was slammed in a recent report released by three Egyptian human rights organisations. They said they fear increased intimidation for witnesses to police crime, which is reportedly on the rise since 2011.
However, rights groups had little opportunity to present their concerns to lawmakers. Egypt's legislature said it would host an open consultation with NGOs and the media, but discussions were held in private.
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Salem, meanwhile, has been locked up in a mental institution, his family says.
"The police report says Ahmed is mentally ill and was carrying documents outlining an Israeli plot when he was arrested," said Nadia Loutfi Mahmoud, his sister-in-law.
She has a letter from his school stating he was a happy, psychologically sound student. Mahmoud alleged Salem was drugged while in detention at Cairo's notorious Gabal Ahmar police camp, before being sent to a psychiatric hospital in Abbasiya.
"We wrote to the Ministry of Health asking for an immediate psychological re-assessment, but they replied saying, according to the law, his case will be reviewed in six months. So he's stuck."
Salem's determination to testify and the implications of the new draft law will mean he will remain trapped indefinitely in the archaic Egyptian mental health system, his mother Wafaat Mohamed Mostafa said.
Osama Diab from the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR) co-authored the recent report condemning the draft law.
"Our main concern with the current Witness Protection Act is that it doesn't encourage witnesses to testify, at a time when discussions about implementing a transitional justice process and truth commissions - which is highly reliant on testimonies - is mounting," said Diab.
The authors say the language of the legislation, which is just 10 articles long, is dangerously vague.
Unlike the United Nations model law, the document fails to properly outline what a witness is, or what should be the composition or activities of the police-run "protection unit".
In addition, under Egyptian law refusing to testify is illegal. However, according to Article Nine of the new constitution, witnesses "found to have lied" will receive an "aggravated prison sentence". This, Diab says, puts witnesses in an impossible position: forcing them to testify even if they fear the consequences of their testimony.
Meanwhile, those who disclose a witness'identity are "subject to imprisonment for at least a year" and a fine, which could end up being a lighter punishment than "lying" witnesses, Diab adds.
It will also only protect blood relatives of the witnesses - unlike similar legislation used in other countries, which covers anyone affected by the testimony.
The law puts witnesses and their families under the care of the security forces at a time of little police accountability and security sector reform. In the two years since the January 25 revolution toppled Murbarak's regime, only three police officers have been jailed for wounding or killing citizens.
The combination of reported police crimes going unpunished and President Mohamed Morsi publicly praising the security forces, effectively gives officers the green light to abuse witnesses, rights groups say.
Witnesses to police crimes are typically bribed, beaten, threatened with jail or even kidnapped, EIPR lawyer Reda Marey told Al Jazeera. Even though the state should legally pursue all murder investigations, once families or friends drop the complaints case against police are often shelved.
Cases of intimidation are widespread across Egypt, Marey said, citing examples in the Damahour, Giza and Daqahila governorates.
Mohamed Marzouq, a worker from Cairo's lower-class district of Marg, was reportedly taken from his home by police shortly after the 18-day uprising against Mubarak's rule began, detained in a flat, and allegedly tortured after he filed a case against his local police station for injuries sustained on January 28, 2011.
| Ola Mohamed Ibrahim's brother died in police custody [Bel Trew/Al Jazeera]
Terrified, Marey said, Marzouq dropped the charges. When civil society groups encouraged him to file a lawsuit claiming he retracted his statement under duress, he said he was badly beaten with a gun by the same policeman.
Last year, one of the more shocking examples of police interference took place in the impoverished Nile Delta town of Mit Ghamr.
On September 16, 2012, Atef Bahbah was reportedly tortured to death in a police station as he attempted to help an assaulted woman file a report, following a violent security raid in the area.
When angry locals assembled outside the police station, security forces opened fire with automatic rifles, reportedly killing another resident, Said Asaalia.
Local lawyer Ayman Sakr, who has worked on the Mit Ghamr case, told Al Jazeera how he was pressured to step down. "The very day I went on [Egyptian channel] ONTV to talk about the two murders, the police accused my brother Youssef of being a thug; blocking roads and stopping trains."
Among the eight other residents slapped with similar charges, two were Asaali's relatives: a warning shot to the community, residents say.
Bahbah's own wife Ateyad was offered 200,000 Egyptian Pounds ($28,500) to retract her testimony incriminating the police, Sakr added. She said she was told the authorities would jail her brother if she did not back off.
"She subsequently re-wrote her testimony a month later, which now reads that her husband died after falling heavily on his head."
To date, none of the police officers are known to have been called in for questioning, and no forensic reports have been released. The policeman identified by residents as shooting Said was transferred to a different police station.
Better than nothing
The government maintains it is working on security sector reform and laws such as the Witness Protection Act are a step in the right direction.
"I can't stress how important this legislation is," said Taher Abdel-Mohsem Ahmed, a senior member of the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) and a Shura Council MP, who is working on the law.
I can't stress how important this legislation is ... If you look at the situation that we are in, there is no other solution than that the police protect us.
Abdel-Mohsem Ahmed said the FJP had been pushing for the act before the Ministry of Justice drafted the document. He also maintained the problem was not with the police per se but with remnants of the former regime inside the Interior Ministry.
"The ministry will create a separate unit of specially chosen members of the security forces. If you look at the situation that we are in, there is no other solution than that the police protect us."
The president, the government and the FJP, Abdel-Mohsem Ahmed added, were committed to security sector reform - but change will take time, and so people "must be patient".
The Ministry of Interior declined to comment about the criticisms levelled at the ministry and the draft legislation.
But there is little to reassure those desperate to receive justice for their loved ones.
"I still don't understand how you get to be the judge and the executer?" Bahbah's sister, Ola Mohamed Ibrahim, asked from her small home in Mit Ghamr. "I don't care what laws they author, I lost my brother, and I just want someone to be held to account."
Karim Ennarah, an EIPR researcher who worked on Bahbah's case, said the only way to protect witnesses was for civil society to make their stories public, while putting pressure on the state.
"This shaky transitional period - marked by inability to implement anything - will continue, as long as there is no real commitment from the ruling elite to ensure police accountability," Ennarah said.
"Any attempt to pretend that Egypt's institutions are functioning normally and are capable of enforcing laws like these, will be met with a different reality."
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