You get so close you can actually smell them - a pungent, sickly-sweet odour of sweaty gorilla. It is of course not far from how we’d smell, if we had been roaming the forest all our lives sans shower gel. We have 98 per cent of the same DNA as the mountain gorilla.

Safari, the big, muscular Alpha Male, stares you down a bit, then purposefully walks by, so close you could reach out and touch him. You don’t of course because you’re rooted to the spot, by the adrenalising combination of fear and wonder.

A couple of infants, no more than two years old, crash about in the trees. Their mother, sitting on her haunches, chews great handfuls of fibrous leaves.

The group has been habituated to human presence of course and you could say therefore they are not truly wild. But this experience brings in millions of tourist dollars every year, benefiting both man and beast.

Near extinction

For the Mountain Gorilla is one of the rarest mammals on earth. By 1989, poaching and habitat destruction had seen the numbers crash to less than 600. Extinction was close at hand.

But the mountain gorilla is making something of a comeback – it’s believed there are now more than 800. And it’s all down to a unique conservation effort.

Flying low altitude in mist swirling over the jungle-clad mountain tops, in a small, heavily loaded Cessna, is no mean feat. Our pilot is a diminutive Japanese woman called Sanae Ishitani, bringing us down to Kisgari airfield in the Ugandan highlands.

“At this level of elevation you lose 80% of engine performance,” she says. “Then you have cloud covering the top of the mountains obscuring your route in. It’s tricky.”

“Difficult…but beautiful,” I say looking down on this ethereal landscape.

We’re deep in Central Africa flying into one of the most ancient habitats on the Continent, which clings to the western edge of the Great Rift Valley.

Here is where the borders of Congo, Rwanda and Uganda meet. And here is the last refuge of the mountain gorilla.

Crop raiders

From above you can see how the hillsides have been stripped bare for cultivation. The gorillas’ range is now tightly squeezed into the boundaries of Bwindi National Park and the Virunga Mountains.

From the ground you can see the hard, steep edge of the National Park, where virgin forest butts up against cultivated land.

“Because of population pressures, the communities cultivate right up to the park edge and this introduces an element of conflict between man and gorilla,” said Stephen Asuma of the International Gorilla Conservation Programme.

“The gorillas will naturally come for the easy pickings and raid villagers’ crops.”

In the past, the villagers would sometimes seek retribution, killing the culprits. So now a 12 kilometre buffer zone has been established along the fringes of Bwindi National Park.

“It incorporates open land which the gorillas don’t like to cross, said Stephen. “This section is then lined all the way along by a thorn hedge, to discourage the more determined raiders.”

Community benefits

So the local community is learning to share an overlap of land with the gorillas. But the comeback of these endangered animals is down to more than just compromise.

Some locals get a job within the Conservation Programme itself, becoming guides or trackers. Others make money from basket weaving and carvings.

We spoke to Constance Tumusiime who runs a community co-operative. “We are benefiting from the gorillas now,” she said. “Because the guests and the tourists come and buy our things. We like the gorillas. We and the gorillas, we are friends.”

Gorilla doctors

Looking after these iconic animals goes further still. The Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Programme monitors the health of the animals across Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. 

Deep in the forest, three metres froma large Silverback called Kirungi, I sit and talk in hushed tones with Gorilla Doctor Fred Nizeyimana.

 “Kirungi had been in a fight and had injured his left jaw, so I’ve come to see how he’s doing,” Dr Fred said. “I’m pleased to see it’s healed, the swelling has reduced.”

The Gorilla Doctors only ever intervene and administer medical treatment if it looks as it the animal will otherwise die. And it’s worked.

“It’s been shown that veterinary medical care interventions have contributed to the upturn in the gorilla population,” Dr Fred said. “There’s still a long way to go but we’re hopeful we can reach a point where we are conserving for generations. Our goal is to put the Gorilla Doctors out of business!”

Not long ago that we might have been talking about the end of the very existence of the mountain gorilla on this planet. But now there is this incredible fact: the mountain gorilla is the ONLY one of the five great apes, whose numbers are actually increasing.

You can watch the second episode of Earthrise here, it will air from Friday 1930 GMT.