The government of Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim nation, has called on Israel to stop the strikes and urged the disputing parties to get back to the negotiating table.
About 6,000 supporters of the Muslim-oriented Prosperous Justice party (PKS), chanted "Allahu Akbar" (God is greatest) and waved Palestinian, Lebanese and Indonesian flags as they marched around the capital.
One protester, Soni Suardi, said: "A few troops are captured and Israel goes on killing so many innocent civilians, bombing cities and destroying public facilities from power to waterworks. How can we not show our care about this.
"The Arab states must rise and stop sitting silent when their neighbours are being annihilated. Are there no more men in that region who dare to stand up against Israel?"
Indonesia's population is 220 million and about 85% of those are Muslim. The country co-operates with Washington in anti-terror efforts in Southeast Asia, but is a strong critic of much of its Middle East policy.
Indonesia has no diplomatic relations with Israel and recognises the Palestinian territories' government as independent. There is a Palestinian embassy in Jakarta.