Police said the Taliban fighters attacked a police vehicle on Friday in Ghazni province, setting off an hour-long battle.
"This attack sparked a police operation. After a one-hour exchange of fire, and the arrival of reinforcements, at least 10 Taliban where killed," provincial police chief Abdul Rahman Sarjang said
The attack was in Giro district where Taliban militants had taken refuge and were besieged by police, Sarjang said.
Afghanistan has in the past 10 days seen some of the worst fighting since the fall of the Taliban as the militia steps up its four-and-a-half-year insurgency, backed by other Islamic outfits including Al-Qaeda.
There are more than 30,000 foreign troops from nearly 40 countries in Afghanistan to help the government put down the revolt and extend its authority to stabilise the country, which has suffered conflict for the past 30 years.