Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki said the resolution, approved by vote, removed doubts that Britain, France and Germany, the three key European countries negotiating with Iran, had violated previous agreements with Iran.
He called the resolution illegal and illogical.
"The three European countries implemented a planned scenario already determined by the United States," Mottaki said on state-run television.
The 35-nation board of the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approved the resolution on Saturday that could lead to Iran's referral to the UN Security Council for violating a nuclear arms control treaty, unless Tehran eases suspicions about its nuclear activities.
The resolution was adopted by a vote of 22 to 1, with 12 abstentions.
To avoid referral, diplomats said, Iran would have to suspend all uranium enrichment activities including uranium conversion, give up construction of a heavy water nuclear reactor and give agency experts access to certain research and development locations and documentation.
Iran insists it may pursue its
activities for peaceful purposes
Iran has repeatedly said it is permitted under the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) to pursue such activities for peaceful purposes and will not give up its right to enrich uranium to produce nuclear fuel.
In remarks suggesting increasing tension in Tehran-London relations, Mottaki said the rotating presidency of the European Union "is unable to manage the situation" and made decisions under US pressure.
Britain holds the current EU presidency.
"The EU3 (Britain, France and Germany), through rendering this politically motivated, illegal and illogical resolution, removed any final doubts that they are not committed to their obligations under agreements reached with Iran in the past 20 months," Mottaki said.
The decision represents a victory for Washington, which says Iran has nuclear weapons ambitions.
For more than two years, the United States had failed to enlist the IAEA board's support to haul Iran before the council for alleged violations of commitments under the NPT.
IAEA chief Mohammed ElBaradei said the decision showed that "the international community is ... not satisfied with the level of confidence-building measures Iran has so far taken".
ElBaradei: Iran has not satisfied
the international community
The IAEA says there is no evidence pointing to an Iranian nuclear weapons programme yet.
Board nations Russia and China, Security Council members with veto power, abstained from Saturday's vote, along with 10 other nations, all developing countries, diplomats said.
Among those voting for the resolution were European countries on the board, along with the US, Canada, Australia and Japan, diplomats said, speaking anonymously.
India, Peru, Singapore and Ecuador also backed the resolution, reflecting some support in the developing nations' camp, they said. Venezuela cast the only vote against.
The resolution called on the board to consider reporting Iran at a future meeting.
"The three European countries implemented a planned scenario already determined by the United States"
Iran Foreign Minister
As grounds, it mentioned non-compliance with the NPT and suspicions that Iran's nuclear activities could threaten international peace and security.
Diplomats from countries backing the resolution said it set Iran up for referral as early as November, when the board next meets in regular session, unless it dispelled international concerns.
It is not yet clear if Iran will take any of the drastic measures it has threatened if the IAEA and Europeans adopt threatening language.
Tehran had already warned that, if the resolution was approved, it could respond by starting uranium enrichment - a possible path to nuclear arms - and by reducing IAEA powers to inspect its activities under the additional agreement it had signed but not yet ratified.