Mexican artist Francisco Toledo won the honorary prize.
Canadians Maude Barlow and Tony Clarke were cited on Thursday for "their exemplary and longstanding work in for trade justice and the recognition of the fundamental human right to water".
Irene Fernandez of Malaysia was honoured for her work to stop violence against women and migrant workers.
They share the prize with the organisation First People of the Kalahari, and its founder Roy Sesana, who were recognised for "resolute resistance against eviction from their ancestral lands".
Toledo was cited for "devoting himself and his art" to protect the cultural heritage and environment of his native Oaxaca.
The awards will be presented by Swedish King Carl XVI Gustaf in a ceremony at the Swedish parliament on 9 December, one day before the Nobel Prizes are handed out.
The awards were founded in 1980 by Jakob von Uexkull, a stamp dealer who sold his collection to fund a programme to recognise work that he believed was ignored by the prestigious Nobel prizes.