The officials said the explosion on Friday went off when the woman, 32-year-old Abir Mohammed Harb, opened the door of her car which was parked near the Lebanon Beach Hotel in the suburb of Khaldeh, just south of Beirut.
Aljazeera's correspondent in Beirut, Bushra Abd al-Samad, said security forces and explosives experts arrived at the scene and cordoned off the area.
She added that journalists and bystanders were prevented from approaching the scene.
One security official said a hand grenade placed between the door and the driver's seat detonated when the woman opened the door.
She was taken to hospital in a serious condition, he said, speaking on condition of anonymity. She was later reported to be in a stable condition at St George's Hospital in south Beirut, where hospital officials said she sustained burns to her right side.
According to the television station al-Manar, the motive for the attack was domestic in nature. Television footage from the site of the explosion showed the driver's seat mangled and torn off, and the door and windshield riddled with shrapnel.
Another official said an army patrol was headed to the scene to investigate.
The explosion is the latest in a series of bombings that have claimed the lives of several people over the past few weeks.