Sunday's double attack provoked a gunfight between anti-US fighters and Iraqi forces in the town, northeast of Baghdad, in which at least four of the attackers were killed, said a police source.
Armed men attacked the Abbara station on the northern side of the city with small arms at about (1900 GMT) after a bomber blew up his truck at the entrance to an army barracks about a 1km away.
The police source said there were 14 soldiers and three civilians among the wounded.
Attacks against Iraq's budding security forces are frequent in Baquba, home to a mixture of Sunnis and Shia.
Police chief killed
Meanwhile, the director of the police anti-corruption department in Mosul was assassinated by a bomber on Sunday, and armed men later opened fire on his funeral procession, killing two mourners.
The US military said the bomber detonated explosives strapped to his body in the building where Brigadier Walid Kashmula worked. Both were killed and one person was wounded.
"This will be the fate of those who stand by the polytheists"
Al-Qaida statement after the Mosul police chief's killing
Al-Qaida's wing in Iraq, led by Jordanian Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, said it had assassinated "the apostate Walid
Kashmula who is the top American agent" in the area.
"This will be the fate of those who stand by the polytheists," al-Qaida in Iraq said in a statement posted on a website.
In the afternoon, anti-US fighters fired on Kashmula's funeral procession, killing two people and wounding at least 14, some
seriously, hospital officials said.
Dozens of cars were in the procession in western Mosul, following the vehicle carrying his body to the grave.