Two guards were wounded when inmates threw boiling oil over them during the disturbances at Gilboa prison on Tuesday, prison service spokeswoman Sharon Gutman said.
Within minutes, riot-dispersal units drove the prisoners back to their cells. "We have sent an elite unit to take control of the situation," she added.
The high-security prison was thereafter back under the command of Israeli riot-security guards.
Around 6,000 Palestinians are estimated to be currently in Israeli detention. Most have been imprisoned in Israeli sweeps of Palestinian territories in West Bank and Gaza.
Inmates frequently complain of overcrowding and lack of access to lawyers.