The influential think tank on Sunday also demanded the Security Council should pass a resolution condemning Khartoum for its "indiscriminate targeting of civilians".
The organisation's statement highlights government obstruction of aid programmes in Darfur, and indirect support for the fearsome Janjawid militia.
It said the resolution should also include a call for the government to respect an 8 April ceasefire signed with rebels who took up arms against the government in February 2003, calling for a fairer share of power and the country's resources.
"The UN Secretary General should be asked to provide a further report to the Security Council within three weeks, reviewing progress," the ICG said in a statement.
The "responsibility to protect" principles were drawn up by an international commission that set out criteria for the appropriate time for states to react militarily to protect people at risk.
Janjawid militia responsible for
worst atrocities in Darfur
Rebels and rights groups have accused Sudan's government of arming the Janjawid militia to loot and burn villages, even though Khartoum publicly calls them outlaws.
The UN has said an estimated one million people have been displaced by the conflict in Darfur, and calls it the largest humanitarian emergency facing the world.
It says about 120,000 refugees have crossed into neighbouring Chad.