The US lists the resistance group Hizb Allah as a "terrorist outfit" and Mahmoud Youssef Kourani has been accused of providing material support to the organization between October 1997 and May 2003.
According to the indictment before a grand jury, Kourani,32, was assisted by his brother, described as the Hizb Allah chief of military security for southern Lebanon.
"Kourani was a member, fighter, recruiter and fundraiser for Hizb Allah who operated both in Lebanon and later within the United States," the indictment read.
Kourani allegedly entered the US "illegally across the US-Mexican border" in February 2001.
Material support for US justice officials means everything from supplying money, providing housing, hiding places and advice to providing weapons, explosives and phony documents.
If found guilty, Kourani faces 15 years behind bars and a $250,000 fine.
The Hizb Allah is an armed group battling Israeli forces. It led a guerilla war in Israeli-occupied southern Lebanon until Israel withdrew in May 2000.