"Our ambassador to The Hague submitted the written statement at lunchtime to the court registrar," ministry spokesman Jonathan Peled told reporters on Friday.
"Our main argument is centred on the question of jurisdiction and propriety. We believe the court should not and can not deal with political issues."
The ICJ was requested to deliver a verdict on the barrier after a vote by the United Nations General Assembly early last month. Hearings are scheduled to start on 23 February.
The Palestinians have argued that the route of the barrier, which at points juts deep into their territory, proves that it is little more than an attempt to pre-empt the borders of their promised state and grab some of their most fertile land.
Israel insists that it is merely designed to prevent attacks on its soil, such as the bombing of a bus in Jerusalem on Thursday which left 10 people dead as well as the Palestinian bomber.
Although any ruling from the court is non-binding, the case has the potential to greatly embarrass Israel.
Prime Minister Ariel Sharon is expected to travel to Washington ahead of the hearing to meet with US President George Bush, who has said the route of the barrier is undermining confidence in the internationally drafted peace "road map".
"No institution or country can give us lessons in morality in regard to the fence after the scenes of horror in Jerusalem."
Sharon's chief spokesman
Sharon's chief spokesman argued after Thursday's bombing that such attacks vindicated the barrier's construction.
"This terrorist attack is the best argument that we can use to
defend the sacred right of Israel to exercise legitimate
self-defense," Ranaan Gissin told AFP.
"No institution or country can give us lessons in morality in regard to the fence after the scenes of horror in Jerusalem," he added.
'Walls and massacres'
In a phone call to US Secretary of State Colin Powell after the blast, Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom also emphasised the need for the barrier.
Sharon will travel to the US ahead
of the wall hearing
"Mr Shalom added that there is no doubt that the security fence is the appropriate response to Palestinian terror attacks," a foreign ministry statement said.
"The fence is effective and it prevents attacks from the places where it exists."
The Palestinian ambassador to the Arab League said the bus bombing proved the barrier cannot guarantee Israel's security.
"Walls and massacres, as well as the humiliation and destruction of the property of Palestinians can only bring more violence," Muhammad Subeih told Egyptian state television.