The resolutions focus on achieving peace in the Middle East. They involve the situation in the Occupied Territories, including Jerusalem, illegal Israeli practices and Israeli attacks against Palestinian targets.
Historically, Israel has enjoyed little support from the United Nations, as its government has long violated most of the resolutions.
So what exactly has the UN resolved?
Resolutions by year
It established a plan for partition, with economic union. It took note of the declaration by the United Kingdom, as the mandatory power for Palestine at the time, to complete its evacuation of Palestine by 1 August 1948.
Adopted by the General Assembly on 11 December 1948
The UN approved it at its 186th plenary (fully attended) meeting. A committee of the assembly resolved that France, Turkey and the US should constitute the conciliation commission. It established that they should have the following functions:
(a) To assume the functions given to the UN mediator on Palestine by resolution 186 (S-2) of the General Assembly of 14 May 1948;
(b) To carry out the specific functions and directives given to it by the present resolution and such additional functions and directives as may be given to it by the General Assembly or by the Security Council;
(c) To undertake, upon the request of the Security Council, any of the functions now assigned to the United Nations Mediator on Palestine or to the United Nations Truce Commission by resolutions of the Security Council; upon such request to the Conciliation Commission by the Security Council with respect to all the remaining functions of the United Nations Mediator on Palestine under Security Council resolutions, the office of the Mediator shall be terminated
This called for a cessation of all military activities for four weeks, and urged all governments and authorities concerned to take every possible precaution for the protection of the holy places and the city of Jerusalem.
It instructed the UN mediator for Palestine, in cooperation with the Truce Commission, to supervise the observance of these provisions; and decided that they should be provided with a sufficient number of military observers.
It decided that, if either party or both rejected the resolution, the situation in Palestine would be considered with a view to action under Chapter 7 of the charter of the UN.
Adopted by the Security Council on 15 July 1948
Adopted at 338th meeting (7-1-3) (one against was Syria, three abstentions were Argentina, Ukrainian SSR, USSR)
It determined that the situation in Palestine constituted a threat to the peace within the meaning of Article 39 of the Charter of the UN.
It ordered all governments and concerned authorities to desist from further military action; and declared that failure to do so would lead to further action under Chapter 7;
It ordered, as a matter of urgent necessity, an immediate and unconditional ceasefire in Jerusalem; and instructed the UN mediator to continue efforts towards the demilitarisation of Jerusalem.
It called for the withdrawal of forces and for the establishment, through negotiations, of permanent truce lines and neutral or demilitarised zones in order to ensure full observance of the truce. A committee of the council was also appointed to advise the acting mediator.
It decided that, in order to eliminate the threat to the peace in Palestine, and to facilitate the transition from the present truce to permanent peace, an armistice line should be established in all sectors of Palestine.
SSR, USSR, US)
It called upon the governments concerned to order an immediate ceasefire and to implement, without further delay, resolution 61 (1948) of the council, and to allow the complete supervision of the truce by the UN observers.
It called upon the governments and authorities concerned to achieve agreement, at an early date, on final settlement of all outstanding questions between them.
The council also found that the armistice agreements constituted an important step towards peace in Palestine.
It decided that the acting mediator be relieved of any further responsibilities under the Security Council resolutions; and arranged for the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) to assist in the supervision of the armistice agreements.
The council found that the retaliatory action at Qibya (Jordan), taken by the armed force of Israel on 14-15 October 1953 and all such actions, constituted a violation of the ceasefire provisions of Security Council resolution 54 (1948) and were inconsistent with the parties’ obligations under the general armistice agreement between Israel and Jordan and the Charter of the UN.
It recalled to the governments of Israel and Jordan their obligations under Security Council resolutions and the general armistice agreement to prevent all acts of violence on either side of the demarcation line
It reaffirmed that it was essential, in order to achieve progress by peaceful means towards a lasting settlement of the issues outstanding between them, that the parties abide by their obligations under the general armistice agreement and the resolutions of the Security Council; and requested the Secretary-General to consider, with the chief of staff, the best ways of strengthening UNTSO.
It condemned the loss of life and heavy damage to property resulting from the serious Israeli military action that took place in Southern Hebron (Al-Samu’) on 13 November 1966.
It censured Israel for this large-scale military action in violation of the UN charter and of the general armistice agreement between Israel and Jordan; and emphasized that the council would have to consider further and more effective steps as envisioned by the charter to ensure that such violent acts would not be repeated.
It called upon the government of Israel to ensure the safety, welfare and security of the inhabitants of the areas where military operations had taken place and to facilitate the return of those inhabitants who had fled the areas since the outbreak of the hostilities.
It recommended to the governments concerned the scrupulous respect of the humanitarian principles governing the treatment of prisoners of war and the protection of civilian persons at time of war, contained in the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949; and requested the Secretary-General to follow the effective implementation of this resolution and to report to the council.
Adopted by the Security Council on 22 November 1967
Adopted 1382nd meeting - unanimously
It affirmed that the fulfilment of charter principles requires the establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East which should include the application of both the following principles: withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict, termination of all claims or states of hostility, and respect for and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every state in the area, and their right to live in peace within secure and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force.
It also affirmed the necessity for guaranteeing freedom of navigation through international waterways in the area; for achieving a just settlement for the refugee problem, and for guaranteeing the territorial inviolability and political independence of every state in the area through measures including the establishment of demilitarised zones.
It requested the Secretary-General to designate a special representative to promote agreement and assist efforts to achieve a peaceful and accepted settlement in accordance with the provisions and principles in this resolution.
It condemned the failure of Israel to comply with General Assembly resolutions 2253 (ES-V) and 2254 (ES-V) of 4 and 14 July 1967; and considered that all legislative and administrative measures taken by Israel, including the expropriation of land and properties, which tend to change the legal status of Jerusalem, were invalid and could not change its status.
It urgently called upon Israel to repeal from all such measures taken and to desist from further actions that intended to change the status of Jerusalem.
It reaffirmed the established principle that the acquisition of territory by military conquest is inadmissible; and deplored the failure of Israel to show any regard for the resolutions of the General Assembly and the Security Council.
It censured in the strongest terms all measures taken to change the status of the city of Jerusalem; and urgently called once more on Israel to refrain from all actions likely to have such an effect in the future.
It determined that in the event of a negative response or no response from Israel, the Security Council should reconvene without delay to consider what further action should be taken on the matter.
It grieved at the extensive damage caused by the fire-starting in the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem on 21 August 1969 under the military occupation of Israel; and recognised that any act of destruction or profanation of holy places, religious buildings and sites in Jerusalem or any encouragement of such act may seriously endanger international peace and security.
It called upon Israel to scrupulously observe the provisions of the Geneva Conventions and international law governing military occupation and to refrain from causing any hindrance to the discharge of the established functions of the Supreme Muslim Council of Jerusalem.
It condemned the failure of Israel to comply with resolutions stated before.
It called for an immediate ceasefire and termination of all military activities.
It called upon the parties concerned to start, immediately after the ceasefire, the implementation of Security Council resolution 242 (1967) in all of its parts.
It decided that negotiations should start, immediately and concurrently with the ceasefire, between the parties concerned under appropriate patronage aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East.
It determined that the policy and practices of Israel in establishing settlements in the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967 had no legal validity and constituted a serious obstruction to achieving a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East.
It called once more upon Israel, as the occupying force, to abide scrupulously by the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention, to rescind its previous measures and to desist from taking any action which would result in changing the legal status and geographical nature of the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem.
The council also called on Israel not to transfer parts of its own civilian population into the occupied Arab territories.
It established a commission consisting of three members of the Security Council to examine the situation relating to settlements and requests the Commission to submit a report to the Security Council.
It accepted the conclusions and recommendations contained in the report of the Commission of the Security Council (on settlements); and determined that all measures taken by Israel to change the physical character, composition, institutional structure of the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem, had no legal validity.
The council also determined that Israel's policy and practices of settling parts of its population and new immigrants in those territories constituted a flagrant violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention, and also constituted a serious obstruction to achieving a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East.
It strongly deplored the continuation and persistence of Israel in pursuing those policies and practices; and called upon Israel to rescind those measures, to dismantle the existing settlements and in particular to cease, on an urgent basis, the establishment, construction and planning of settlements in the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem.
It called upon all states not to provide Israel with any assistance to be used specifically in connection with settlements in the occupied territories; and requested from the commission to continue examining the situation relating to settlements, and to investigate the reported serious depletion of natural resources, particularly water, with the intention of ensuring the protection of those important natural resources.
It expressed deep concern that the Jewish settlers in the occupied Arab territories were allowed to carry arms, thus enabling them to perpetrate crimes against the civilian population.
It called for the immediate apprehension and prosecution of the perpetrators of these crimes and condemned the assassination attempts on the lives of the mayors of Nablus, Ram Allah and Al-Bireh.
It expressed deep concern that Israel, as an occupying force, had failed to provide adequate protection to the civilian population in the occupied territories in conformity with the provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention.
It called once again upon all states not to provide Israel with any assistance to be used specifically in connection with settlements in the occupied territories; and reaffirmed the overriding necessity to end the prolonged occupation of Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967, including Jerusalem.
- Adopted by the Security Council on 5 June 1980
- Adopted at 2777th meeting (14-0-1) (one abstention was US.)
Taking into account the need to consider measures for the impartial protection of the Palestinian civilian population under Israeli occupation, the resolution strongly deplored those policies and practices of Israel, which violated the human rights of the Palestinian people in the occupied territories, particularly the opening of fire by the Israeli army resulting in the killing and wounding of defenseless Palestinian civilians.
It called, once again, upon Israel, the occupying force, to abide immediately and thoroughly by the Fourth Geneva Convention.
It condemned the continuing deportation of Palestinian civilians by Israel, and called upon Israel, the occupying force, to ensure the safe and immediate return of deported Palestinians to the occupied Palestinian territories.
It called upon Israel to desist from deporting any other Palestinian civilians; and reaffirmed that the Fourth Geneva Convention was applicable to the Palestinian territories, occupied by Israel since 1967, including Jerusalem, and to the other occupied Arab territories.
It reaffirmed its relevant resolutions, which stated the applicability of the Fourth Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 to the territories occupied by Israel in June 1967. Thereby, the resolution strongly condemned the massacre in Hebron committed against Palestinian worshippers in Al-Ibrahimi Mosque, on 25 February 1994, during the holy month of Ramadan, and its aftermath, which took the lives of more than 50 Palestinian civilians and injured several hundred others.
It called upon Israel, the occupying force, to implement measures, including inter alia (confiscation of arms), with the aim of preventing illegal acts of violence by Israeli settlers; and called for measures to be taken to guarantee the safety and protection of the Palestinian civilians throughout the occupied territory, including, inter alia, a temporary international or foreign presence, which was provided for in the declaration of principles within the context of the ongoing peace process.
It requested the co-sponsors of the peace process, the US and the Russian Federation, to continue their efforts to revitalise the peace process, and to undertake the necessary support for the implementation of the above-mentioned measures.
It called for the implementation of the Declaration of Principles, signed by the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organisation on 13 September 1993 in Washington DC without delay.
It condemned the provocation carried out at Al-Haram Al-Sharif in Jerusalem on 28 September 2000, and the subsequent violence there and at other holy places, as well as in other areas throughout the territories occupied by Israel since 1968, resulting in more than 80 Palestinian deaths and many other casualties.
It condemned acts of violence, especially the excessive use of force against Palestinians, resulting in injury and loss of human life. And called upon Israel, the occupying force, to abide thoroughly by its legal obligations and its responsibilities under the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war.
It called for the immediate cessation of violence, and for all necessary steps to be taken to ensure that violence ends, that new provocative actions are avoided, and that the situation returns to normality in a way that promotes the prospects for the Middle East peace process.
It stressed the importance of establishing a mechanism for a speedy and objective inquiry into the tragic events of September 2000, with the aim of preventing their repetition.
Recalling all its previous resolutions, in particular resolutions 242 (1967) and 338 (1973), the resolution affirmed a vision of a region where two states, Israel and Palestine, live side by side within secure and recognised borders.
It expressed its grave concern at the continuation of the tragic and violent events that have taken place since September 2000, especially the recent attacks and the increased number of casualties.
It stressed the need for all concerned to ensure the safety of civilians, and to respect the universally accepted norms of international humanitarian law.
It demanded immediate cessation of all acts of violence, including all acts of terror, provocation, incitement and destruction.
It called upon the Israeli and Palestinian sides and their leaders to cooperate in the implementation of the Tenet work plan and Mitchell report recommendations with the aim of resuming negotiations on a political settlement.
It expressed grave concern at the further deterioration of the situation, including the recent suicide bombings in Israel and the military attack against the headquarters of the president of the Palestinian Authority.
It called upon both parties to move immediately to a meaningful ceasefire, and requested the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Palestinian cities, including Ram Allah. and called upon the parties to cooperate fully with Special Envoy Zinni, and others, to implement the Tenet security work plan as a first step towards implementation of the Mitchell committee recommendations, with the aim of resuming negotiations on a political settlement.
It restated the demand in resolution 1397 for immediate cessation of all acts of violence, including all acts of terror, provocation, incitement and destruction.
Adopted by the Security Council on 19 April 2002 (adopted unanimously)
It concerned by the dreadful humanitarian situation of the Palestinian civilian population, especially, reports from the Jenin refugee camp of an unknown number of deaths and destruction.
It called for the lifting of restrictions imposed, particularly in Jenin, on the operations of humanitarian organisations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross and the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East.
It stressed the need for all concerned to ensure the safety of civilians, and to respect the universally accepted norms of international law.
It emphasised the urgency of the Palestinian civilian population to access medical and humanitarian organisations.
It welcomed the initiative of the Secretary-General to develop accurate information regarding recent events in the Jenin refugee camp through a fact-finding team and requested him to keep the Security Council informed.
It condemned all terrorist attacks against any civilians, including the terrorist bombings in Israel on 18 and 19 September 2002 and in a Palestinian school in Hebron on 17 September 2002.
It expressed serious concern at the reoccupation of the headquarters of the president of the Palestinian Authority in the City of Ram Allah that took place on 19 September 2002 and demanded its immediate end.
It expressed alarm at the reoccupation of Palestinian cities as well as the severe restrictions imposed on the movement of persons and goods, and was gravely concerned at the humanitarian crisis being faced by the Palestinian people.
It reiterated the need for respect in all circumstances of international humanitarian law, including the Fourth Geneva Convention.
It demanded that Israel immediately cease measures in and around Ram Allah, including the destruction of Palestinian civilian and security infrastructure. It also demanded the expeditious withdrawal of the Israeli occupying forces from Palestinian cities towards the return to positions held prior to September 2000.