Lebanese police said Israeli fighter-bombers fired three air-to-ground missiles at positions in the Bayyarda hills near the border town of Naqura. There were no immediate reports of casualties from Wednesday's incident.
"Israeli planes attacked the part of Lebanon from which a cannon belonging to Hizb Allah fired shells," an Israeli spokesman said.
"The planes destroyed the cannons," he added.
The Israelis insisted the attack was justified and threatened to respond to all acts of "terrorism" in a similar fashion.
"These shots fired by Hizb Allah, which is supported by Syria, are the same kind which recently killed an Israeli teenager and wounded seven people and are terrorist acts which target out citizens," the Israeli army said in a statement.
"The Islamic resistance considers the raids as acts of aggression"
Hizb Allah spokesman
Hizb Allah confirmed that the Israelis hit one of its positions but said none of its fighters were harmed.
"The Islamic resistance reserves the right of response to this aggression and knows well how to choose the appropriate time and place for the response.
"The Islamic resistance considers the raids as acts of aggression," a Hizb Allah spokesman told Reuters.
The Israeli strike, the second in less than a month, came hours after Hizb Allah fighters fired anti-aircraft rounds at Israeli jets flying in Lebanese airspace.
Despite withdrawing from southern Lebanon in 2000 after a 22-year occupation, Israeli jets still violate Lebanon airspace regularly, drawing Hizb Allah barrages.
Earlier on 10 August, Israeli troops and jets had attacked some Lebanese villages after a Hizb Allah anti-aircraft shell killed an Israeli teenager in northern Israel.
Lalit Tiwari, the commander of the UN peacekeeping force in south Lebanon meanwhile expressed "deep concern" over the day's developments.