Planets are born much earlier

Two US astronomers say planets take much less time to form around newly- born stars than thought before. It takes only three million years instead of 10 million for a planet to be born from the cosmic dust swirling around a star.

    Much quicker than thought,
    planets may only take 3 million
    years to form

    Recipe for an "instant" Earth-like planet: scrape up cosmic dust swirling around a newborn star and wait a mere three million years.

    Even the building blocks for giant gas planets like Jupiter might form just as quickly, about three times faster than many
    scientists believe, a team of astronomers reported on Monday.

    Three million years may sound like a long time when set against the human life span, but it is a relative blink of the eye in cosmic time.

    Earth is considered a middle-aged planet at about 4.5 billion years or so, and compared to Earth, these theoretical 3-million-year-old planets would be formed when the star they orbit is the equivalent of a week-old baby.

    Astronomers Elizabeth Lada of the University of Florida in Gainesville and Karl Haisch of the University of Michigan in
    Ann Arbor, concluded, by studying the dusty disks that form around the infant stars, that the beginnings of planets might form about three million years after stars are born.

    These disks are made of cosmic dust and gas that can either
    be absorbed into the still-forming star or spun out into clumps
    of material that can become planets. But without a disk, it is
    unlikely that planets will form around a star.

    The team found that while disks surrounded many star babies
    as they clustered together in stellar nurseries at about 1
    million years of age, there were relatively few by the time the
    stars were 3 million years old and none by the time they were 6 million years old.

    Dust disk

    "For the very youngest clusters, 80 to 90% of stars in the cluster have a disk," Lada said in a telephone interview.

    "But when we looked toward older clusters, the number of stars that had an indicator of a disk decreased with age until we got out to five or six million years, when the dust that we're sensitive to is gone."

    The astronomers looked at four prime star-forming regions
    located in the constellations Orion and Perseus, located some
    1000 light-years from Earth.

    A light-year is about 6 trillion miles (10 trillion km), the distance light travels in a year.

    To detect potentially planet-forming disks around the young
    clustered stars, the scientists monitored infrared light.

    They found the dusty disks took infrared light from the central star and gave off infrared light of their own. So when Lada and her colleagues found excess infrared emissions, they presumed the presence of a dust disk.

    Because they found that in most cases, the dust disk dissipates in three million years or less, they figured that terrestrial, rocky planets like Earth - which are made from such dust - must at least start to form in that time.

    They figured the gas in the disks must dissipate just as quickly, which would mean that gassy giants like Jupiter would begin forming at about the same point in time.

    These findings were reported at a meeting of the American
    Astronomical Society in Nashville, Tennessee.

    Astronomers had previously figured that planets could form
    in as little as 10 million years or so after star birth.

    However, supercomputer simulations reported last year in
    the journal Science suggested an even quicker path to planetary formation, with calculations indicating that big Jupiter-type planets might form in as little as hundreds of years, instead of millions.

    SOURCE: Unspecified


    YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE

    Israel’s settlements: 50 years of land theft explained

    Israel’s settlements: 50 years of land theft explained

    On the anniversary of UN Resolution 242, Al Jazeera explores the illegal Israeli settlement enterprise.

    Robert Mugabe: Portrait of a presidency

    Robert Mugabe: Portrait of a presidency

    Some key moments in the life of the man who led his country from independence in 1980 until November 21, 2017.

    When is Thanksgiving Day and why is it celebrated?

    When is Thanksgiving Day and why is it celebrated?

    In the US, Thanksgiving Day will be celebrated on Thursday, November 23.